In the third class we saw the topic “Organizational motivation”, The business dictionary defines motivations as internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal.
There are different motivation processes like:
Internal: Give primary consideration to variables within the individual.
External: Focus on elements on the environment.
Process: Emphasize the nature of the interaction between the individual and the environment.
A need is a state within an individual that generates movement toward some outcome, there is the Intrinsic motivation (internal needs) and the Extrinsic motivation (external incentives).
The maslows need’s hierarchy we can find five different needs: Self actualization, Self steem, Love, Safety and security and Physiological. The three first are under the Y theory (Higher order needs), the other two are under the X theory (Lowe order needs). Usually people under theory X dislike work and avoid, but people under theory Y view work as natural and seek responsibility.
The ERG theory says that workers pursue multiple needs at the same time (Growth needs, relatedness needs and Existence needs), according to the regression hypothesis when a person gets frustrated trying to satisfy some needs, they start trying to satisfy some lower needs.
The McClelland’s needs theory sees need as needs of achievement (Challenging goals), power (Influence others) and affiliation (Maintain close relationships).
The two factor theory sees two kind of factors, the motivation factors (Job satisfaction and psychological growth) and Hygiene factors (Job dissatisfaction and avoidance of pain).
The social exchange and equity theory sees three categories of exchange between individuals and organizations 1. Committed (Moral relations). 2. Calculated (Reciprocate relationship). 3. Alienated (High negative intensity).
The Stacy Adams theory of inequity says that people are motivated when they see think they are in risk and they compare their incomes and outcomes with others.
The expectancy theory says that a good effort leads to a good performances and it should lead to a reward.
Moral maturity is the degree in which people are motivated to act ethically (mature) or unethically (egocentric).
It is important to say that there in not a perfect theory, and that managers should try to understand their employees needs and train them to increase their motivation to work.